There are many models of microcontroller development boards based on Espressif ESP8266 chip. Unfortunately, different boards have different pin layouts or configurations. This NodeMCU V3 ESP8266 Pinout guide is for the ESP8266-based devkit pictured below.
This particular board was purchased this January 2020 from a local supplier, makerlab-electronics.com.
NodeMCU V3 Development Board Specification
Based on the supplier’s website, the board’s specification is as follows:
- Communication interface voltage: 3.3V.
- Antenna type: Built-in PCB antenna is available.
- Wireless 802.11 b/g/n standard
- WiFi at 2.4GHz, support WPA / WPA2 security mode
- Support STA/AP/STA + AP three operating modes
- Built-in TCP/IP protocol stack to support multiple TCP Client connections (5 MAX)
- D0 ~ D8, SD1 ~ SD3: used as GPIO, PWM, IIC, etc., port driver capability 15mA
- AD0: 1 channel ADC
- Power input: 4.5V ~ 9V (10VMAX), USB-powered
- Current: continuous transmission: ≈70mA (200mA MAX), Standby: <200uA
- Transfer rate: 110-460800bps
- Support UART / GPIO data communication interface
- Remote firmware upgrade (OTA)
- Flash size: 4MByte
As an additional information, this board uses the UART chip CH340G. Remember that other ESP8266 boards use another UART chip, namely Silicon Labs CP2102.
Note the advertised GPIO:
D0 ~ D8, SD1 ~ SD3: used as GPIO, PWM, IIC, etc., port driver capability 15mA
Some websites even advertise the whole set of ESP8266 chip GPIO:
Digital I/O Pins (DIO): 17
Analog Input Pins (ADC): 1
But the fact is, some of the GPIOs are used by the development board for its proper operation. Using them would possibly crash your program. Or may give you unexpected results.
Six of the seventeen GPIOs, marked on the top of the board as S3, S2, S1, SC, S0, and SK, are all used by the board to interface with the 4MB external flash chip. This leaves us with:
Digital I/O Pins (DIO): 11
Analog Input Pins (ADC): 1
Now, if your program is using the hardware serial pins, labeled TX and RX, you are left with only nine (9) usable digital IO and one (1) analog-to-digital IO.
Therefore, in reality, these are the only available GPIOs:
Digital I/O Pins (DIO): 9 - D0 thru D8
Analog Input Pins (ADC): 1 - A0
NodeMCU V3 ESP8266 Pinout
ARDUINO IDE PIN REFERENCE
When programming the NodeMCU V3 ESP8266 board with Arduino IDE, we may use the pin labels printed on the top of the board. That is, A0 for the ADC pin and D0 thru D10 for the digital pins (D9 is RX and D10 is TX).
For example, to reference GPIO D0,
#define ledPIN1 D0 // or D1, D2, up to D8
#define ledPIN2 D9 // D9 and RX may be used interchangeably
// or #define LEDPIN2 RX
#define switchPIN D10 // D10 and TX may be used interchangeably
// or #define switchPIN TX
#define inVolts A0
pinMode(switchPIN, INPUT); //for demo only, may not be necessary
//DIOs are by default INPUT
bool sw = digitalRead(switchPIN);
analogRead(inVolts); // ADC A0 is for reading only
// can't be used as OUTPUT
Summary of Available IO Pins
|Board Label||GPIO||Normal Use||Comments|
|A0||ADC0||Input only||Analog input|
|D0||GPIO16||Wake up||Pulled LOW, HIGH at boot|
|D3||GPIO0||FLASH||Pulled HIGH, do not pull LOW|
|D4||GPIO2||BUILT-IN LED||Pulled HIGH, do not pull LOW|
|D8||GPIO15||CS||SPI, Pulled LOW, do not pull HIGH|
|RX||GPIO3||RX||May be used as Input, HIGH on boot|
|TX||GPIO1||TX||May be used as Output, HIGH on boot|
|LOW||HIGH||HIGH||Boot program in flash|
|HIGH||X||X||SDIO (not used on Arduino)|